Artigo completo - Open Access.

Idioma principal | Segundo idioma

The Impact of Biotechnologies on New Chemical Entities (NCE)

The Impact of Biotechnologies on New Chemical Entities (NCE)

Pinto, Christoffer Alex Souza; Matos, Murilo Montanari de;

Artigo completo:

Este artigo parte da seguinte questão: as biotecnologias têm um impacto positivo sobre a eficácia da P&D? Para respondê-la, elaboramos duas hipóteses baseadas na literatura: (H1) As tecnologias farmacêuticas tiveram um efeito positivo sobre os resultados tecnológicos no curto prazo; (H2) As biotecnologias têm um efeito positivo sobre os resultados tecnológicos a longo prazo. Desenvolvemos um modelo VEC para medir o impacto das patentes farmacêuticas e da biotecnologia a curto e longo prazo. Nossos cálculos nos permitiram confirmar H2. No entanto, no curto prazo, identificamos a NCE passada como a única variável significativa para a NCE futura. Nosso artigo contribui trazendo uma análise de séries temporais para a economia da inovação e respondendo a outro assunto relevante entre a economia do conhecimento e da inovação que é o acréscimo de conhecimento útil feito por patentes.

Artigo completo:

This article departs from the following question: does biotechnologies have a positive impact over R&D effectiveness? In order to answer it we elaborate two hypotheses based on the literature: (H1) Pharmaceutical technologies had a positive effect on technological outputs at the short run; (H2) Biotechnologies have a positive effect on technological outputs at the long run. We conducted a VEC model to measure the impact of pharma and biotech patents in the short and long run. Our calculations allowed us to confirm H2. Nevertheless, in the short run we identify the Past NCE as the only significant variable to future NCE. Our article contributes by bringing a time series analyses to the economics of innovation and by answering another relevant subject among the economics of knowledge and innovation that is the additions in useful knowledge made by patents.

Palavras-chave: Biotecnologia; Indústria farmacêutica; Propriedade Intelectual; Inovação.,

Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Pharmaceutical Industry; Intellectual Property; Innovation.,

DOI: 10.5151/v-enei-661

Referências bibliográficas
  • [1] ACHILLADELIS, B.; ANTONAKIS, N. The dynamics of technological innovation: the case of the pharmaceutical industry. In: Research Policy, n. 30, pp 535-588, 2001
  • [2] AMZEL, M. Structure-based drug design. In: Current opinion in biotechnology,9(4), 366-369, 1998.
  • [3] BOHACEK, S.; MCMARTIN, C; GUIDA, C. The art and practice of structure‐based drug design: a molecular modeling perspective. Medicinal research reviews, v. 16, n. 1, p. 3-50, 1996.
  • [4] BROWN, G.; BOSTRÖM, J. Where do recent small molecule clinical development candidates come from?. Journal of medicinal chemistry, v. 61, n. 21, p. 9442-9468, 2018.
  • [5] CASSIMAN, B.; VEUGELERS, R. In Search of Complementarity in Innovation Strategy: Internal R&D and External Knowledge Acquisition. In: Management Science, vol. 52, n. 1, pp. 68-82, 2006
  • [6] COMANOR, W.; SCHERER, F. Mergers and Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. In: Journal of Health Economics, 32, pp 106-113, 2013.
  • [7] COWAN, R.; DAVID, P.; FORAY, D. The explicit economics of knowledge codification and tacitness. Industrial and corporate change, v. 9, n. 2, p. 211-253, 2000.
  • [8] DiMASI, J. New drug innovation and pharmaceutical industry structure: trends in the output of pharmaceutical firms. In: Drug information Journal, Vol. 34. pp. 1169-1194, 2000.
  • [9] DREWS, J. Strategic trend in the drug industry. In: DDT, vol. 8, n. 9, 2003
  • [10] ENGLE, F.; GRANGER, J. Co-Integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing. Econometrica, v. 55, n. 2, p. 251–276, 13 set. 1987. Disponível em: .
  • [11] ENDERS, Walter. Applied econometric time series. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
  • [12] FORAY, D. The Economics of Knowledge, the MIT press, Cambridge, 2006
  • [13] FORAY, D.; HARGREAVES, D. The production of knowledge in different sectors: a model and some hypotheses. London Review of Education, v. 1, n. 1, p. 7-19, 2003.
  • [14] GAMBARDELLA, A. Science and Innovation: The U.S. Pharmaceutical industry During the 1980’s, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.
  • [15] GANE, P.; DEAN, P. Recent advances in structure-based rational drug design. In: Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 10:401–404, 2000.
  • [16] GISLING, V.; NOTEBOON, B. Exploration and explotation in Innovation systems: The case of pharmaceuticals biotechnology. In: Research Policy, n. 35, pp 1-23, 2006.
  • [17] GRABOWSKI, H.; VERNON, J. Returns to R&D on new drug introductions in the 1980s. In: Journal of Health Economics 13, pg. 383-406, 1994
  • [18] GRABOWSKI, H.; VERNON, J. The determinants of pharmaceutical research and development expenditures. In: Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 10, pp 201-215, 2000.
  • [19] GRILICHES, Zvi. Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey. In: R&D and productivity: the econometric evidence. University of Chicago Press, 1998. p. 287-343.
  • [20] HAGEDOORN, J.; DUYSTERS, G. The effect of Mergers and Acquisitions on the Technological Performance of Companies in a High-tech Environment. In: technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 14:1, pp 67-85, 2002.
  • [21] HALL, B.; JAFFE, A.; TRAJTENBERG, M. The NBER patent citation data file: Lessons, insights and methodological tools. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001..
  • [22] HAUSMAN, Jerry A.; HALL, Bronwyn H.; GRILICHES, Zvi. Econometric models for count data with an application to the patents-R&D relationship. national bureau of economic research, 1984.
  • [23] HENDERSON, R.; ORSENIGO, L.; PISANO, G.; The pharmaceutical industry and the revolution in molecular biology: interaction among scientific, institutional and organizational change. In: Mowery, d. d.; Nelson, R. R. (eds), Sources of Industrial Leadership, Camridge University Press, New York, pp. 267-311, 1999.
  • [24] HESS, A., ROATHERMEL, F. When are assets complementary? Star scientists, strategic alliances, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. In: Strategic Management Journal, 32, pg. 895–909, 2011.
  • [25] HOPKINS, M.; CRANE, A.; NIGHTINGALE, P.; BADEN-FULER, C. Buying big into biotech: scale, financing and the industrial dynamics of UK biotech, 1980-2009. In: industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 22, n. 4, pp. 903-952, 2013.
  • [26] HOPKINS, M.; MARTIN, P.; NIGHTINGALE, P.; KRAFT, A.; MADHI, S.; The myth of the biotech revolution: An assessment of technological, clinical and organizational change. In: Research Policy, 36, pp 566-589, 2007
  • [27] HOUSTON, J., G.; BANKS, M. The Chemical-biological interface: developments in automated and miniaturized screening technology. In: Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 8, pp 734-740, 1997
  • [28] JOHANSEN, Søren. A Statistical Analysis of Cointegration for I(2) Variables. Econometric Theory, v. 11, n. 1, p. 25–59, 14 set. 1995. Disponível em: .
  • [29] JOHANSEN, Søren. Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, v. 12, n. 2, p. 231–254, 1988. Disponível em: .
  • [30] KENNEY, M. Biotechnology: The University-Industrial Complex, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1987
  • [31] KONG, X.; LI, X.; ZHANG, H. Where is the hope for drug discovery? Let history tell the future. Drug discovery today, v. 14, n. 3-4, p. 115-119, 2009.
  • [32] MACARRON, R.; BANKS, M. N.; BOJANIC, D.; BURNS, D. J.; CIROVIC, D. A.; GARYANTES, T.; CHOPFER, U. Impact of high-throughput screening in biomedical research. In: Nature reviews Drug discovery,10(3), 188-195, 2011.
  • [33] MARTIN, P.; Genes as drugs: the social shaping of gene therapy and the reconstruction of genetic disease. In: Sociology of Health & Illness, v. 21, n.5, 1999
  • [34] MARTIN, P., HOPKINS, M., NIGHTINGALE, P., KRAFT, A. On a critical path: genomics, the crisis of pharmaceutical productivity and the search for sustainability. In: In: ATKINSON, P., GLASNER, P., LOCK, M., (eds) Handbook of Genetics & Society: Mapping the New Genomic Era, pp 145-161, 2011.
  • [35] MATOS, M.M. Changes in Innovation Dynamics of the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Study of the Interaction between Large pharmaceutical Companies and the Acquired Small Biotechnology Enterprises. Tese (Doutorado) – Unicamp, Campinas, 2016.
  • [36] MCKELVEY, M.; ORSENIGO, L.; Pharmaceuticals as a Sectoral Innovation System. In: Paper prepared for the ESSY Project (European Sectoral Systems of Innovation) and within the Epris Project, 2001.
  • [37] MOKYR, J. The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2002
  • [38] NELSON, R. Knowledge and Innovation Systems. In: knowledge Management in the Learning Society, OECD, Paris, 1999.
  • [39] NIGHTINGALE, P. Economics of scale in pharmaceutical experimentation. In: industrial and Corporate change, n. 9, pp. 315-359, 2000.
  • [40] NIGHTINGALE, P.; MADHI, S. The evolution of pharmaceutical innovation. In: MAZZUCATO, M.; DOSI, G. (eds) Knowledge Accumulation and Industry Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007.
  • [41] PAKES, A.; GRILICHES, Z. Patents and R&D at the firm level: A first report. Economics letters, v. 5, n. 4, p. 377-381, 1980.
  • [42] PEREIRA, D. A.; WILLIAMS, J. A. Origin and evolution of high throughput screening. In:British journal of pharmacology,152(1), 53-61, 2007.
  • [43] POWELL, W.; KOPUT, K.; SMITH-DOERR, L.; Interorganizacional collaboration and the locus of innovation networks of learning in biotechnology. In: Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, pp. 116-145, 1996
  • [44] QUÉRÉ, M. The post-genome era: rupture in the organization of the life science industry? In: McKELVEY, M., RICKNE, A., LAAGE-HELLMAN, J. The Economic Dynamics of Modern Biotechnology, Edward Elgar, Northhampton, USA, 2004
  • [45] SANTOS, F. The coevolution of firms and their knowledge environment: Insights from the pharmaceutical industry. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 70 (2003) 687–715
  • [46] SCHIMID, E.; JAMES, K.; SMITH, D. The Impact of Technological Advances on Drug Discovery Today. In: Drug Information Journal, vol. 35, pp. 41-45, 2001.
  • [47] SCHWARDT, O.; KOLB, H.; ERNST, B. Drug Discovery Today. October, n. 3, p. 1–9, 2003.
  • [48] SCHWARTZMAN, D. Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry, The Johns Hopkins university Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1976
  • [49] SCHWEIZER, L. Organizational interaction of Acquired Biotechnology Companies into Pharmaceutical Companies: The need for a Hybrid Approach. In: Academy of Management Journal, vol. 48, n. 6, pp. 1051-1074, 2005.POWELL, W.; KOPUT, K.; SMITH-DOERR, L.; Interorganizacional collaboration and the locus of innovation networks of learning in biotechnology. In: Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, pp. 116-145, 1996
  • [50] QUÉRÉ, M. The post-genome era: rupture in the organization of the life science industry? In: McKELVEY, M., RICKNE, A., LAAGE-HELLMAN, J. The Economic Dynamics of Modern Biotechnology, Edward Elgar, Northhampton, USA, 2004
  • [51] SANTOS, F. The coevolution of firms and their knowledge environment: Insights from the pharmaceutical industry. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 70 (2003) 687–715
  • [52] SCHIMID, E.; JAMES, K.; SMITH, D. The Impact of Technological Advances on Drug Discovery Today. In: Drug Information Journal, vol. 35, pp. 41-45, 2001.
  • [53] SCHWARDT, O.; KOLB, H.; ERNST, B. Drug Discovery Today. October, n. 3, p. 1–9, 2003.
  • [54] SCHWARTZMAN, D. Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry, The Johns Hopkins university Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1976
  • [55] SCHWEIZER, L. Organizational interaction of Acquired Biotechnology Companies into Pharmaceutical Companies: The need for a Hybrid Approach. In: Academy of Management Journal, vol. 48, n. 6, pp. 1051-1074, 2005.
Como citar:

Pinto, Christoffer Alex Souza; Matos, Murilo Montanari de; "The Impact of Biotechnologies on New Chemical Entities (NCE)", p. 699-714 . In: Anais do V Encontro Nacional de Economia Industrial e Inovação (ENEI): “Inovação, Sustentabilidade e Pandemia”. São Paulo: Blucher, 2021.
ISSN 2357-7592, DOI 10.5151/v-enei-661

últimos 30 dias | último ano | desde a publicação


downloads


visualizações


indexações