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Políticas orientadas por missões e a indústria da saúde

Mission-oriented policies and health industry

Albareda, Alexandra; Torres, Ricardo Lobato; Pereira, Victor Hugo;

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O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) representou um grande avanço na seguridade social brasileira e é atualmente um dos maiores sistemas públicos e universais do mundo. No entanto, para ser capaz de atender à população nos diversos serviços prestados, o SUS depende de oferta e disponibilidade de uma série de produtos de saúde, entre os quais se destacam os medicamentos e os equipamentos médico-hospitalares, pela maior complexidade tecnológica envolvida e pelo maior custo que estes representam para o orçamento público. Dessa forma, há uma relação direta entre a capacidade de oferta do SUS e a capacidade de produção e de inovação tecnológica em produtos de saúde em território nacional. O Brasil possui um importante complexo econômico industrial da saúde, como é o caso da indústria farmacêutica, que conta com grandes empresas fabricantes de medicamentos genéricos, o que permite, por exemplo, viabilizar um programa nacional de assistência farmacêutica mediante a aquisição de medicamentos a preços competitivos e de qualidade. Ademais, conta com importantes institutos públicos de pesquisa, que contribuem para o desenvolvimento tecnológico no setor. Apesar disso, há uma forte dependência externa no que diz respeito tanto à importação de medicamentos, quanto de insumos farmacêuticos ativos e de equipamentos médico-hospitalares. O saldo da balança comercial no segmento da saúde é historicamente deficitário, bem como a capacidade de inovação de maior grau de novidade, o que faz com que a incorporação de tecnologias mais avançadas no SUS possam se tornar cada vez mais caras, comprometendo o orçamento da saúde. Neste sentido, o fortalecimento do complexo econômico industrial da saúde no país poderia ser um meio para garantir a sustentabilidade do seu sistema público de saúde, bem como um mecanismo de geração de emprego, renda e capacitação tecnológica em uma área estratégica. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é discutir as contribuições da abordagem teórica das políticas orientadas por missões para a indústria da saúde e para a efetivação da universalidade do SUS, bem como de sua missão constitucional de promoção de inovação tecnológica e efetiva produção de medicamentos, equipamentos, imunobiológicos e outros insumos de saúde. Para isso, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica acerca das políticas industriais aplicadas ao setor desde a criação do SUS e sobre as políticas orientadas por missões relacionadas ao complexo econômica industrial da saúde. O texto traz algumas reflexões sobre os limites das políticas introduzidas até então e sobre os potenciais da adoção de novas políticas baseadas em missões.

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The Unified Health System (SUS) represented a significant advance in Brazilian social security and is currently one of the world's largest public and universal systems. However, in order to be able to serve the population in the various services provided, SUS depends on the supply and availability of a series of health products, among which medicines and medical-hospital equipment stand out, due to the greater technological complexity involved and the higher cost they represent for the public budget. Thus, there is a direct relationship between the SUS supply capacity and the production and technological innovation capacity in health products in the national territory. Brazil has an essential industrial health economic complex, as is the case of the pharmaceutical industry, which has large companies that manufacture generic drugs, which makes it possible, for example, to enable a national pharmaceutical assistance program through the acquisition of drugs at competitive prices and quality. Furthermore, it has crucial public research institutes, which contribute to the technological development in the sector. Despite this, there is a solid external dependence concerning importing medicines, active pharmaceutical ingredients and medical-hospital equipment. The trade balance in the health segment is historically deficient, and the capacity for innovation with a greater degree of novelty makes the incorporation of more advanced technologies in the SUS increasingly expensive, compromising the health budget. In this sense, strengthening the health industrial-economic complex in the country could be a means to guarantee the sustainability of its public health system and a mechanism for generating employment, income, and technological learning in a strategic area. Thus, the objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of the theoretical approach of mission-oriented policies for the health industry and the realization of the universality of the SUS, as well its constitutional mission of promoting technological innovation and effective production of medicines, equipment, immunobiological and other health supplies. For this, bibliographic research was carried out on the industrial policies applied to the sector since the creation of the SUS and on the policies guided by missions related to the industrial economic complex of health. The text reflects the limits of the policies introduced so far and the potential to adopt new policies based on missions.

Palavras-chave: Inovação; Políticas Orientadas por Missões; Complexo Econômico Industrial da Saúde; Sistema Único de Saúde; Brasil,

Palavras-chave: Innovation; Mission-Oriented Policies; Health Industrial-Economic Complex; Unified Health System; Brazil,

DOI: 10.5151/vi-enei-842

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Como citar:

Albareda, Alexandra; Torres, Ricardo Lobato; Pereira, Victor Hugo; "Políticas orientadas por missões e a indústria da saúde", p. 1264-1279 . In: Anais do VI Encontro Nacional de Economia Industrial e Inovação (ENEI): “Indústria e pesquisa para Inovação: novos desafios ao desenvolvimento sustentável”. São Paulo: Blucher, 2022.
ISSN 2357-7592, DOI 10.5151/vi-enei-842

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