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Knowledge-based startups or small companies’ mergers & acquisitions: an antitrust debate? Recent cases from US, EU and Brazil

Knowledge-based startups or small companies’ mergers & acquisitions: an antitrust debate? Recent cases from US, EU and Brazil

PIRES-ALVES, Camila C.; GONZALO, Manuel; LYRA, Marcos Puccioni de Oliveira;

Artigo Completo:

A emergência do novo paradigma tecno-econômico baseado nas TICs tem influenciado o debate antitruste. Este trabalho busca responder duas perguntas. Primeiro, como as autoridades antitruste deveriam considerar as aquisições de startups ou pequenas empresas de base tecnológica. Segundo, quais são os desafios institucionais que se apresentam nesta área. Apesar da escassez de literatura específica, apresenta-se o debate conceitual e teórico existente e examinam-se casos recentes nos Estados Unidos e na União Europeia procurando encontrar questões relevantes para responder ao objetivo proposto. Também se apresentam alguns casos recentes do Brasil para trazer recomendações gerais e guiar desdobramentos para pesquisa futura. Podemos sustentar que participações de mercado não são uma boa proxy de poder de mercado no que refere ao sucesso da estratégia de inovação das firmas, porque pode ser volátil no curto-prazo ou não demonstrar o potencial da empresa na concorrência por inovação. Vimos que há importantes contribuições no sentido de sintetizar em princípios gerais e comportamentos possíveis quanto aos incentivos a inovar pós-fusão. Entretanto, foram desenhados a partir de qualquer efeito em inovação, e ainda assim não possuem sistematização e procedimentos bem definidos na experiência internacional. No caso das empresas pequenas ou startups, levantamos algumas questões a serem abordadas: o market share reduzido ou inexistente, a importância de identificar o comprador e suas mudanças nos incentivos para manter a inovação são algumas especificidades que tornam as análises ainda mais complexas. Há, ainda, importante defasagem das autoridades no acompanhamento desses casos uma vez que os critérios de notificação estão amparados em faturamento das empresas ou grupos. Finalmente, a introdução de critérios que consideram o valor da transação pode ser um bom ponto de partida.

Artigo Completo:

The emergence of a new techno-economic paradigm mainly based in the ICT technologies naturally have influenced the ongoing antitrust debate. This paper is devoted to answer two questions. First, how the antitrust authorities should consider knowledge-based startups or small companies acquisitions. Second, what are the current institutional challenges in this topic. Despite this discussion is not much explored in the literature, we looked at the antitrust theoretical debate and examined the recent merger cases in the United States and in the European Union in order to extract some insights about these questions. Also, we briefly explored some selected Brazilian recent cases to draw some policy and academic further agenda in this country. We can sustain that market shares are not an accurate proxy for market power considering the ability of succeed in innovation strategies; they can be highly volatile or cannot appropriately show the firm’s potential in the competition for innovation. We see that there are important contributions to present general principles concerning the incentives to innovate post-merger. Nevertheless, they were designed to accomplish all kind of merger effects in innovation. For the startups or small firms case, we raised some issues to be addressed: the small or even non-existent market share and the importance of identifying the buyer and their changes in incentives to maintain the innovation path are some specificity that turns the analyses even more complex. There are relevant gap for the antitrust authorities, as the submission threshold are mainly based on companies revenues. The introduction of additional thresholds for the value of transaction may be a starting point.

Palavras-chave: antitruste, defesa da concorrência, startups, pequenas empresas, inovação, US, UE, Brasil,

Palavras-chave: antitrust, competition policy, startups, small enterprises, innovation, US, EU, Brazil,

DOI: 10.5151/enei2017-53

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Como citar:

PIRES-ALVES, Camila C.; GONZALO, Manuel; LYRA, Marcos Puccioni de Oliveira; "Knowledge-based startups or small companies’ mergers & acquisitions: an antitrust debate? Recent cases from US, EU and Brazil", p. 968-989 . In: . São Paulo: Blucher, 2017.
ISSN 2357-7592, DOI 10.5151/enei2017-53

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