Artigo - Open Access.

Idioma principal | Segundo idioma

APPLICATION OF X-RAY TECHNIQUES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

APPLICATION OF X-RAY TECHNIQUES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Galvão, E. S.; Santos, J. M.; Lima, A. T.; Feroni, R. C.;

Artigo:

A morbidade e mortalidade, principalmente em idosos e crianças, causada pelo material particulado atmosférico (MP), aumentou nas últimas décadas o número de estudos preocupados com a identificação de fontes de MP. Os modelos de contribuição de fonte são amplamente utilizados para o gerenciamento da qualidade do ar, modelando contribuições de fontes baseadas na composição física e/ou química de PM no receptor. Entre as mais diversas técnicas analíticas que podem ser usadas para caracterização de PM, as técnicas de fluorescência de raios-X por energia dispersiva (EDXRF) e difração ressonante de raios-X por luz sincrotron (RSr-XRD) parecem ser úteis para a elucidação de problemas ambientais complexos. Neste trabalho, amostras de MP da área externa de um sítio industrial foram coletadas de 2016 a 2017, e analisadas por EDXRF e RSr-XRD para caracterização elementar e cristalográfica. Os resultados mostraram que apenas a análise elementar utilizada como modelo de entrada de dados dos receptores, não fornece resultados satisfatórios devido à semelhança entre os perfis das fontes químicas, o que minimiza a sensibilidade do modelo de receptor (PMF). Os resultados do RSr-XRD mostraram-se uma boa complementação, ajudando a identificar as contribuições de fontes específicas em uma região com grande complexidade. A análise por RSr-XRD determinou algumas fases cristalinas, como α-Fe2O3, FeS2 e BaTiO3, mostrando-se associadas a fontes específicas, podendo atuar como marcadores de fontes específicos.

Artigo:

The morbidity and mortality, especially regarding elders and children, caused by the atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have increased over the last decades the number of studies concerned on the identification of PM sources. Source apportionment models are widely used for the air quality management, modeling source contributions based on the physical and/or chemical composition of PM at the receptor. Among the most diverse analytical techniques that can be used for PM characterization, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and resonant synchrotron X-ray diffraction (RSr-XRD) appear to be useful techniques for the elucidation of complex environmental problems. In this work, PM samples from the outer area of an industrial site were collected from 2016 to 2017 and analyzed by EDXRF and RSr-XRD for elemental and crystallographic characterization. The results showed that only the elemental analysis used as receptor models input data do not provide satisfactory results due to the similarity between the chemical source profiles, which minimize the sensibility of the receptor model (PMF). RSr-XRD results showed to be good complementation, helping to identify the contributions of specific sources in a region with great complexity. The RSr-XRD analysis determined some crystalline phases such as α-Fe2O3, FeS2, and BaTiO3 showing to be associated with specific sources, acting as specific source markers.

Palavras-chave: -,

Palavras-chave: -,

DOI: 10.5151/wcacem-02

Referências bibliográficas
  • [1] Dockery, D.W., Pope 3rd, C.A., Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution, Annu. Rev. Publ. Health, v. 15, p. 107-132 (1994).
  • [2] Kappos, A.D., Bruckmann, P., Eikmann, T., Englert, N., Heinrich, U., Hoppe, P., Koch, E., Krause, G.H.M., Kreyling, W.G., Rauchfuss, K., Rombout, P., Schulz-Klemp, V., Thiel, W.R., Wichmann, H.E., Health effects of particles in ambient air,Int. J. Hyg Environ. Health, v. 207, p. 399-407 (2004).
  • [3] Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey (2006).
  • [4] Lippmann, M., Chen, L.C., Health effects of concentrated ambient air particulate matter (CAPs) and its components, Crit. Rev. Toxicol., v. 39, p. 865-913 (2009).
  • [5] Chen, L.-W.A., Watson, J.G., Chow, J.C., Magliano, K.L., Quantifying PM2.5 source contributions for the San Joaquin Valley with multivariate receptor models, Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 41, p. 2818-2826 (2007).
  • [6] Pant, P., Yin, J., Harrison, R.M., Sensitivity of a chemical mass balance model to different molecular marker traffic source profiles, Atmos. Environ. v. 82, p. 238-249 (2014).
  • [7] Lee, E., Chan, C.K., Paatero, P., Application of positive matrix factorization in source apportionment of particulate pollutants in Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ., v. 33, p. 3201-3212 (1999).
  • [8] Hopke, P.K., Recent developments in receptor modeling, J. Chemom., v. 17, p. 255-265 (2003).
  • [9] Norris, G., Duvall, R., Brown, S., Bai, S., EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) 5.0 Fundamentals and User Guide. EPA/600/R-14/108 (NTIS PB2015-105147),Washington (2014).
  • [10] Morawska, L., Zhang, J.J., Combustion sources of particles. 1. Health relevance and source signatures, Chemosphere, v. 49, p.1045–1058 (2002).
  • [11] Wilson, W.E., Chow, J.C., Claiborn, C., Fusheng, W., Engelbrecht, J., Watson, J.G., Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors, Chemosphere, v. 49, p. 1009-1043 (2002).
  • [12] Galvão, E.S., Santos, J.M., Lima, A.T., Reis, N.C., Orlando, M.T.D., Stuetz, R.M., Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: a critical review of fundaments and applications, Chemosphere, v. 199, p. 546-568 (2018).
  • [13] Janssens, K.H.A., Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass. Wiley (2013).
  • [14] Brown, R.J.C., Milton, M.J.T., Analytical techniques for trace element analysis: an overview, TrAC Trends Anal. Chem., v. 24, p. 266-274 (2005).
  • [15] González, L.T., Rodríguez, F.E.L., Sánchez-Domínguez, M., Leyva-Porras, C., Silva-Vidaurri, L.G., Acuna-Askar, K., Kharisov, B.I., Villarreal Chiu, J.F., Alfaro Barbosa, J.M., Chemical and morphological characterization of TSP and PM2.5 by SEM-EDS, XPS and XRD collected in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, Atmos. Environ., v. 143, p. 249-260 (2016).
  • [16] Bernabé, J.M., Carretero, M.I., Galán, E., Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain), Atmos. Environ., v. 39, p. 6777-6789 (2005).
  • [17] Cienfuegos, F., Vaitsman, D., Análise Instrumental, Editora Interciência, Rio de Janeiro (2000). Galvão, E. S., Santos, J. M., Lima, A. T., Reis, N. C., Stuetz, R. M., Orlando, M. T. D., Resonant Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction determines markers for iron-rich atmospheric particulate matter in urban region, Chemosphere, v. 212, p. 418-428 (2018).
  • [18] Carvalho, A.M.G., Nunes, R.S., Coelho, A.A., X-ray powder diffraction of high absorption materials at the XRD1 beamline off the best conditions: application to (Gd, Nd)5Si4 compounds, Powder Diffr., v. 32, p. 10-14 (2017).
  • [19] Habre, R., Coull, B., Koutrakis, P., Impact of source collinearity in simulated PM2.5 data on the PMF receptor model solution, Atmos. Environ., v. 45, p. 6938-6946 (2011).
  • [20] Shi, G.-L., Liu, G.-R., Peng, X., Wang, Y.-N., Tian, Y.-Z., Wang, W., Feng, Y.-C., A comparison of multiple combined models for source apportionment, including the PCA/MLR-CMB, Unmix-CMB and PMF-CMB models, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., v. 14, p. 2040-2050 (2014).
Como citar:

Galvão, E. S.; Santos, J. M.; Lima, A. T.; Feroni, R. C.; "APPLICATION OF X-RAY TECHNIQUES IN THE INVESTIGATION OF COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS", p. 7-13 . In: . São Paulo: Blucher, 2019.
ISSN 2358-9337, DOI 10.5151/wcacem-02

últimos 30 dias | último ano | desde a publicação


downloads


visualizações


indexações