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A Ascensão Chinesa no Setor Aeroespacial: Políticas de Desenvolvimento

China's Rise in the Aerospace Sector: Development Policies

Cechin, Alícia; Bispo, Scarlett Queen Almeida;

Artigo:

O setor aeroespacial é altamente estratégico e simboliza o poder econômico, tecnológico e geopolítico de um país. Com a finalidade de desenvolver “campeões nacionais”, a China criou políticas e estratégias para diversas indústrias, assim, ao passo que essas políticas foram bem sucedidas, foi possível notar uma aceleração na produção, no emprego e no comércio internacional. O acelerado desenvolvimento aeroespacial chinês está relacionado à sua intenção de desenvolver indústrias com alta intensidade tecnológica, que vem estando fortemente presente em Planos de desenvolvimento desde o final da década de 70. Sendo assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as políticas de desenvolvimento da indústria espacial e de aviação chinesa desde a década de 50 até as perspectivas para os próximos anos, dando ênfase aos Planos de desenvolvimento “Made in China 2025” (MIC25) e o 14º Plano Quinquenal (2021-25), bem como identificar seu posicionamento atual nesse setor. O estudo revelou que a China alcançou grandes avanços no setor espacial, se tornando um dos três principais países que dominam esse segmento. Situação um pouco diferente quando se trata de aeronaves comerciais, graças ao desenvolvimento tardio dessas indústrias. Por outro lado, o setor aeroespacial da China como um todo é fortemente nacional e vem ganhando cada vez mais relevância através de ambiciosos planos de desenvolvimento, tanto em inovação tecnológica quanto na disposição de recursos financeiros, no intuito de, entre outras coisas, superar o déficit na balança comercial dos produtos de alta intensidade tecnológica do setor.

Artigo:

The aerospace sector is highly strategic and symbolizes the economic, technological and geopolitical power of a country. In order to develop “national champions”, China has developed policies and strategies for various industries. Thus, while these policies successful, it was possible to notice an acceleration in production, employment and international trade. The accelerated Chinese aerospace development is related to its intention to develop industries with high technological intensity, which has been strongly present in development plans since the end of the 70's. Therefore, the present study aims to analyze the development policies of the Chinese space and aviation industry from the 1950s to the prospects for the coming years, emphasizing the “Made in China 2025” (MIC25) Development Plans and the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-25), as well as identifying their positioning current in this sector. The study revealed that China has made great strides in the space sector, becoming one of the top three countries that dominate this segment. Different situation when it comes to commercial aircraft, thanks to the late development of these industries. On the other hand, the aerospace sector in China as a whole is strongly national and has been gaining more and more relevance through ambitious development plans, both in technological innovation and in the provision of financial resources, in order to, among other things, overcome the deficit in the trade balance of products with high technological intensity in the sector.

Palavras-chave: Políticas de Desenvolvimento; China; Espacial; Aviação; Inovação,

Palavras-chave: Development Policies; China; Space; Aviation; Innovation,

DOI: 10.5151/vi-enei-871

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Como citar:

Cechin, Alícia; Bispo, Scarlett Queen Almeida; "A Ascensão Chinesa no Setor Aeroespacial: Políticas de Desenvolvimento", p. 934-955 . In: Anais do VI Encontro Nacional de Economia Industrial e Inovação (ENEI): “Indústria e pesquisa para Inovação: novos desafios ao desenvolvimento sustentável”. São Paulo: Blucher, 2022.
ISSN 2357-7592, DOI 10.5151/vi-enei-871

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