Artigo - Open Access.

Idioma principal


GIELFI, Giovanna G.; FURTADO, André; TIJSSEN, Robert J. W.;


This paper aims to analyze the university-industry collaboration on the technological development of Petrobras, the Brazilian state-controlled oil company. Based on inventors’ names, extracted of patent applications by Petrobras gathered from the PatStat database, and ancillary information from Lattes Platform, we identify the academic joint-patents within Petrobras’ patent portfolio. Then we analyze the contribution of university collaboration to support the firm’s technological development and its main technical areas. Furthermore, we examine changes in collaboration overtime to explore if the recent R&D funding policy has affected the Petrobras-university interactions. The main findings of this study reveal an upward trend in Petrobras-university inventive collaboration, which is fostered by the R&D funding policy, resulting in an enlargement of the Petrobras’ collaborative network. We have also found that universities make background and niche contributions to Petrobras’ patenting activities, raising questions about whether collaboration has effectively contributed to strengthen the technological capabilities of the company. The implications of these results to enhance the R&D resources and capabilities of Petrobras, as well as to strengthen the Brazilian system of innovation related to oil and gas activities, are also discussed.


Este artigo busca analisar a colaboração universidade-empresa no desenvolvimento tecnológico da Petrobras, a empresa petrolífera estatal brasileira. Através das informações das patentes depositadas pela Petrobras, extraídas da base de dados PatStat, buscou-se identificar dentre as patentes da estatal aquelas que possuem colaboração com as universidades. Para tanto, foram listados todos os inventores e seus nomes buscados na Plataforma Lattes de forma a identificar os inventores acadêmicos e, consequentemente, as patentes co-inventadas com universidades. Com base nesses dados, foram analisadas a contribuição da colaboração com universidades para o desenvolvimento tecnológico da Petrobras e as principais áreas tecnológicas em que ocorre a colaboração. Além disso, foi investigado o efeito da recente política de financiamento à P&D na colaboração Petrobras-universidades. Os principais resultados obtidos revelam uma tendência crescente na colaboração Petrobras-universidades no desenvolvimento de patentes, fomentada pela política de financiamento à P&D, e que propiciou a expansão na rede de colaborações da estatal. Contudo, os resultados levantam dúvidas quanto a efetiva contribuição das universidades para o fortalecimento das capacitações tecnológicas da Petrobras, uma vez que a colaborações está concentrada em áreas de nicho e backgroung. Por fim, a partir dos resultados obtidos, são discutidas as implicações de políticas para o fortalecimento das capacidades tecnológicas da Petrobras, bem como do sistema de inovações brasileiro de petróleo e gás natural.

Palavras-chave: university-industry collaboration; R&D funding; academic patents; patent analysis; Brazil; oil industry,

Palavras-chave: colaboração universidade-empresa; financiamento à P&D; patentes acadêmicas; análise de patentes; Brasil; indústria petrolífera,

DOI: 10.5151/engpro-1enei-071

Referências bibliográficas
  • [1] Albuquerque, E.M., Suzigan, W., Kruss, G., Lee, K. (Eds.), 2015. Developing National Systems of Innovation: university-industry interactions in the Global South. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK e Northampton, MA, USA.
  • [2] ANP, 2015. Anuário estatístico brasileiro do petróleo, gás natural e biocombustíveis 2015. Rio de Janeiro.
  • [3] Bekkers, R., Bodas Freitas, I.M., 2008. Analysing knowledge transfer channels between universities and industry: To what degree do sectors also matter? Res. Policy 37, 1837–185 doi:10.1016/j.respol.2008.07.007
  • [4] Bodas Freitas, I.M., Marques, R.A., Silva, E.M.D.P.E., 2013. University–industry collaboration and innovation in emergent and mature industries in new industrialized countries. Res. Policy 42, 443–453. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.06.006
  • [5] Breschi, S., Lissoni, F., Malerba, F., 2003. Knowledge-relatedness in firm technological diversification. Res. Policy 32, 69–87. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00004-5
  • [6] Brusoni, S., Geuna, A., 2005. Specilialisation and Integration: combining patents and publications data to map the “structure” of specialised knowledge, in: Moed, H.F., Glänzel, W., Schmoch, U. (Eds.), Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research. Springer, Netherlands, pp. 733–758.
  • [7] Campos, A.L.S., 2010. A review of the influence of long-term patterns in research and technological development (R&D) formalisation on university-industry links. Rev. Bras. Inovação 9, 379–409.
  • [8] Chaves, C.V., Carvalho, S.S.M., Silva, L.A., Teixeira, T.C., Bernardes, P., 2012. The point of view of firms in Minas Gerais about the contribution of universities and research institutes to R&D activities. Res. Policy 41, 1683–1695. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.07.008
  • [9] Cohen, W.M., Nelson, R.R., Walsh, J.P., 2002. Links and Impacts : The Influence of Public Research on Industrial R&D. Manage. Sci. 48, 1–23.
  • [10] Currie, I., 2011. Government Policies to Encourage University-Business Research Collaboration in Canada: Lessons from the US, the UK and Australia, CSLS Research Report 2011-02.
  • [11] Dantas, E., Bell, M., 20 The Co-Evolution of Firm-Centered Knowledge Networks and Capabilities in Late Industrializing Countries: The Case of Petrobras in the Offshore Oil Innovation System in Brazil. World Dev. 39, 1570–1591. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2002.002
  • [12] Dutrénit, G., Arza, V., 2010. Channels and benefits of interactions between public research organisations and industry: comparing four Latin American countries. Sci. Public Policy 37, 541–553. doi:10.3152/030234210X512043
  • [13] Eisenhardt, K.M., 1989. Building theories from case study research. Acad. Manag. Rev. 14, 532–550.
  • [14] European Commission, 20 The 2014 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. doi:10.2791/13983
  • [15] Ferreira, M.L.A., Ramos, R.R., 20 Making University-Industry Technological Partnerships Work: a Case Study in the Brazilian Oil Innovation System. J. Technol. Manag. Innov. 10, 173–187. doi:10.4067/S0718-27242015000100013
  • [16] Freeman, C., 1987. Technology Policy and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan. Pinter Publishers, London.
  • [17] Furtado, A.T., 2003. Mudança institucional e inovação na indústria brasileira de petróleo. Rev. Bras. Energ. 9, 1–12.
  • [18] Furtado, A.T., 2002. Mudança institucional e inovação na indústria brasileira de petróleo. Rev. Bras. Energ. 9, 1–12.
  • [19] Furtado, A.T., Freitas, A.G., 2000. The catch-up strategy of Petrobras through cooperative R&D. J. Technol. Transf. 25, 23–36. doi:10.1023/A:1007882903341
  • [20] Garcia, R., Araujo, V., Mascarini, S., Gomes Santos, E., Costa, A., 2015. Looking at both sides: how specific characteristics of academic research groups and firms affect the geographical distance of university–industry linkages. Reg. Stud. Reg. Sci. 2, 517–533. doi:10.1080/21681376.2015.1099464
  • [21] Geuna, A., Nesta, L., 2006. University patenting and its effects on academic research: The emerging European evidence. Res. Policy 35, 790–807. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2006.04.005
  • [22] Gielfi, G.G., Pereira, N.M., Gomes, R., Fornari, V.C.D.B., 2013. User-Producer Interaction in the Brazilian Oil Industry: The Relationship Between Petrobras and its Suppliers of Wet Christmas Tree. J. Technol. Manag. Innov. 8, 117–127.
  • [23] Granstrand, O., Patel, P., Pavitt, K., 1997. Multi-Technology Corporations: Why they have “distributed” rather than “distinctive core” competencies. Calif. Manage. Rev. 39, 8–25. doi:Article
  • [24] Griliches, Z., 1990. Patent Statistics as Economic Indicators: A Survey. J. Econ. Lit. 28, 1661–1707. doi:10.1016/S0169-7218(10)02009-5
  • [25] IBGE, 2013. Pesquisa de Inovação - PINTEC. Brasília.
  • [26] Klevorick, A.K., Levin, R.C., Nelson, R.R., Winter, S.G., 1995. On the sources and significance of interindustry differences in technological opportunities. Res. Policy 24, 185–205. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(93)00762-I
  • [27] Laursen, K., Salter, A., 2004. Searching high and low: what types of firms use universities as a source of innovation? Res. Policy 33, 1201–1215.
  • [28] Lima, M.F. da C., Silva, M.A., 2012. Inovação em petróleo e gás no Brasil: a parceria Cenpes-Petrobras e Coppe-UFRJ. Soc. e Estado 27, 97–115.
  • [29] Lissoni, F., 2012. Academic patenting in Europe: An overview of recent research and new perspectives. World Pat. Inf. 34, 197–205. doi:10.1016/j.wpi.2012.03.002
  • [30] Lundvall, B.-Å. (Ed.), 1992. National Systems of Innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning, Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Pinter, London.
  • [31] Mansfield, E., 1995. Academic research underlying industrial innovations: sources, characteristics, and financing. Rev. Econ. Stat. 77, 55–65.
  • [32] Martinez, C., 2010. INSIGHT INTO DIFFERENT TYPES OF PATENT FAMILIES (No. 2), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers. Paris.
  • [33] Mazzoleni, R., 2008. Catching Up and Academic Institutions: A Comparative Study of Past National Experiences. J. Dev. Stud. 44, 678–700. doi:10.1080/00220380802009175
  • [34] Mazzoleni, R., Nelson, R.R., 2007. Public research institutions and economic catch-up. Res. Policy 36, 1512–1528. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2007.06.007
  • [35] Meyer-Krahmer, F., Schmoch, U., 1998. Science-based technologies: university–industry interactions in four fields. Res. Policy 27, 835–851. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(98)00094-8
  • [36] Meyer, M., 2003. Academic patents as an indicator of useful research? A new approach to measure academic inventiveness. Res. Eval. 12, 17–27.
  • [37] Mowery, D.C., Sampat, B.N., 2005. Universities in National Innovation Systems, in: Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D.C., Nelson, R.R. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 209–239.
  • [38] Narin, F., Hamilton, K.S., Olivastro, D., 1997. The increasing linkage between US technology and public science. Res. Policy 26, 317–330.
  • [39] Narin, F., Noma, E., Perry, R., 1987. Patents as indicators of corporate technological strength. Res. Policy 16, 143–155. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(93)90052-J
  • [40] Nelson, R.R., 1993. National Innovation Systems: a comparative analysis. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • [41] Nesta, L., Patel, P., 2005. National Patterns of Technology Accumulation: Use of Patent Statistics. Handb. Quant. Sci. Technol. Res. 531–551. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6378(199908)24:4<297::AID-COL11>3.3.CO;2-6
  • [42] OECD, 2014. Brazil, in: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014. OECD Publishing, Paris, pp. 280–283. doi:10.1787/sti_outlook-2014-39-en
  • [43] OECD, 2013. Commercialising Public Research. doi:10.1787/9789264193321-en
  • [44] OECD, 2009. OECD Patent Statistics Manual. OECD Publishing, Paris. doi:10.1787/9789264056442-en
  • [45] Pavitt, K., 1998. Do patents reflect the useful research output of universities? Res. Eval. 7, 105–111. doi:10.1093/rev/7.2.105
  • [46] Pavitt, K., 1991. What makes basic research economically useful? Res. Policy 20, 109–119. doi:10.1016/0048-7333(91)90074-Z
  • [47] Pavitt, K., 1988. Uses and abuses of patent statistics, in: van Raan, A.F.J. (Ed.), Handbook of Quantitative Studies of Science and Technology. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., North-Holland, pp. 509–536.
  • [48] Pereira, N.M., Furtado, A.T., Freitas, A.G., Martins, F.C., Santos, A.M.R., 2003. Perfil dos projetos financiados pelo CT-Petro. Parcerias Estratégicas 8, 215–249.
  • [49] Perkmann, M., Walsh, K., 2007. University–industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. Int. J. Manag. Rev. 9, 259–280. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2370.2007.00225.x
  • [50] Petrobras, 2013. Relatório de Tecnologia Petrobras.
  • [51] Poletto, C.A., Araújo, M.A.D. De, Mata, W. Da, 2011. Gestão compartilhada de P&D: o caso da Petrobras e a UFRN. Rev. Adm. Pública 45, 1095–1117. doi:10.1590/S0034-76122011000400009
  • [52] Rapini, M.S., 2007. Interação universidade-empresa no Brasil: evidências do Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPq. Rev. Econ. Contemp. 11, 99–117. doi:10.1590/S1415-98482007000100004
  • [53] Salter, A.J., Martin, B.R., 2001. The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Res. Policy 30, 509–532. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(00)00091-3
  • [54] Silva, K., Godinho, M.M., Tonholo, J., Uchoa, S.B.B., Vasconcellos, A.G., 2014. PATENTES ACADÊMICAS X PATENTES UNIVERSITÁRIAS: UMA AVALIAÇÃO DO INVENTOR ACADÊMICO NAS PATENTES DEPOSITADAS PELA VIA PCT 2002-2012. Cad. Prospecção 7, 335–344. doi:10.9771/S.CPROSP.2014.007.034
  • [55] Suslick, S.B., 2007. Strategic university-industry partnership in petroleum: the case of Cepetro/Unicamp as a brazilian innovative experience. Brazilian J. Pet. Gas 1, 59–66.
  • [56] Suzigan, W., Albuquerque, E.M., 2011. The underestimated role of universities for the Brazilian system of innovation. Rev. Econ. Política 31, 03–30.
  • [57] Thursby, J., Fuller, A.W., Thursby, M., 2009. US faculty patenting: Inside and outside the university. Res. Policy 38, 14–25. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2008.09.004
  • [58] Tijssen, R.J.W., 2005. Measuring and evaluating science-technology connections and interactions, in: Moed, H.F., Glänzel, W., Schmoch, U. (Eds.), Handbook of Quantitative Science and Technology Research: The Use of Publication and Patent Statistics in Studies of S&T Systems. Kluwer Academic Publisher, New York, pp. 695–715.
  • [59] Trajtenberg, M., 1990. A penny for your quotes: patent citations and the value of innovations. RAND J. Econ. 21, 172–187. doi:10.2307/2555502
  • [60] Turchi, L., De Negri, F., De Negri, J.A. (Eds.), 2013. Impactos tecnológicos das parcerias da Petrobras com universidades, centros de pesquisa e firmas brasileiras. IPEA, Brasília.
  • [61] van Dongen, P., Winnink, J., Tijssen, R.J.W., 2014. Academic inventions and patents in the Netherlands: A case study on business sector exploitation. World Pat. Inf. 38, 27–32. doi:10.1016/j.wpi.2014.03.002
  • [62] Velho, L., Saenz, T.W., 2002. R&D in the public and private sector in Brazil: complements or substitutes?, UNU/INTECH Discussion Papers, 1564–8370.
  • [63] Velho, L., Velho, P., Davyt, A., 1998. Las políticas e instrumentos de vinculación en los países del MERCOSUR. Educ. Super. y Soc. 9, 51–76.
Como citar:

GIELFI, Giovanna G.; FURTADO, André; TIJSSEN, Robert J. W.; "R&D FUNDING POLICY AND UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RESEARCH COLLABORATION IN BRAZIL: THE CASE OF PETROBRAS", p. 1277-1294 . In: Anais do 1º Encontro da Nacional de Economia Industrial e Inovação [=Blucher Engineering Proceedings, v.3 n.4]. São Paulo: Blucher, 2016.
ISSN 2357-7592, DOI 10.5151/engpro-1enei-071

últimos 30 dias | último ano | desde a publicação